Surface Irrigation Methods • Flooding • Borders • Basins • Furrows. The incidence of surface irrigation process consists of four phases, as illustrated in Figure 7 below. Figure 11. Two typical examples are shown in Figure 3, which illustrate the most common basin irrigation concept: water is added to the basin through a gap in the perimeter dyke or adjacent ditch. Furrow irrigation configurations (after USDA-SCS, Most fields have a head ditch or pipeline running along the upper side of the field from which the flow is distributed onto the field. 2.4 Surface irrigation for optimal performance, 2.1 Introduction to surface In: Annual Report 1988, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. On line: "Mechanisms by which surge irrigation reduces furrow infiltration rates in a silty loam soil", "Free articles and software on drainage of waterlogged land and soil salinity control", FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 45: Guidelines for designing and evaluating surface irrigation systems, The Experimental Hydrology Wiki Infiltration - Hood Infiltrometer, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Surface_irrigation&oldid=994297262, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 00:25. The recession phase 4 1.3. Although surface irrigation is thousands of years old, the most significant advances have been made within the last decade. Field distribution and spreading can also be through portable pipelines running along the surfaces or permanent pipelines running underground. Surface water and groundwater monitoring and reporting programs are also likely to … It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years. The perimeter dykes need to be well maintained to eliminate breaching and waste, and must be higher for basins than other surface irrigation methods. This chapter uses volume balance methods to design surface irrigation systems. Surface irrigation is the oldest yet still the most common form of irrigation throughout the world although it traditionally suffers from many problems such as low efficiency and low uniformity. In surface irrigation events, there are four phases i.e. The precision of the field topography is also critical, but the extended lengths permit better levelling through the use of farm machinery. The aim of modern surface irrigation management is to minimize the risk of these potential adverse impacts. Volume balance methods compare the applied volume to surface and subsurface storage volumes in order to calculate parameters such as infiltration rate or the rate of water advance down the field. Depletion is the interval between cut off and the appearance of the first bare soil under the water. These are generally situations where the value of the crop is very small or the field is used for grazing or recreation purposes. 2. Each bay is irrigated in turn using a combination of drainage water from the previous bay and continuing inflow from the supply channel. The spacing between adjacent furrows is governed by the crop species, common spacings typically range from 0.75 to 2 metres. The advance phase refers to that length of time as water is applied to the top end of the field and flows or advances over the field length. Figure 7. Figure 5 shows two typical furrow irrigated conditions. 2.3.2 Wastewater recovery • Strip widths ~ 30 to 60 ft – What is wrong with wide borders? As water is applied to the top end of the field it will flow or advance over the field length. The volume of water on the surface begins to decline after the water is no longer being applied. The bays are typically longer and narrower compared to basin irrigation and are orientated to align lengthwise with the slope of the field. Sprinkler irrigation is application of water under pressure as simulated rain. Estimation of the infiltration rate using the actual furrow method 7 1.3.3. Determination of optimum stream size and … Some irrigation water is supplied in piped delivery systems and some directly pumped from groundwater. to surface irrigation The soil acts as the growing medium in which water is stored and the conveyance medium over which water flows as it spreads and infiltrates. The strip Surface irrigation can either flood a field fully (for deep-rooted crops), or you have systems which wash through your garden and drain at the other end. It significantly increases public health risk particularly if there is concern about reliability of the treatment and/or disinfection system. The evaluation methods can be applied if desired, but the design techniques are not generally applicable nor need they be since the irrigation practices tend to be minimally managed. This can be achieved through increasing flow rates or through the practice of surge irrigation. Time is cumulative since the beginning of the irrigation, distance is referenced to the point water enters the field. Is the water supply mainly from canals? The recession phase describes the time period while the water front is retreating towards the downstream end of the field. The gated pipe may be connected to the main water supply via a piped distribution network with a riser assembly like the one shown in Figure 13, directly to a canal turnout, or through an open channel to a piped transition. When water is applied to the field, it 'advances' across the surface until the water extends over the entire area. What methods are used? The Equations describing the hydraulics of surface irrigation are the continuity and momentum equation.These equations are known as the St.Venantequation.In general, the continuity equation expressing the conservation of mass, can be written as: (31.1) The momentum equation expressing the dynamic equilibrium of the flow process is: (31.2) Where, y - Depth of flow (m) t -Time from beginning … Issues associated with surface irrigation. As water is applied to the top end of the field it will flow or advance over the field length. One of the innovations in surface irrigation, the It either drains from the surface (runoff) or infiltrates into the soil. Furrow irrigation avoids flooding the entire field surface by channelling the flow along the primary direction of the field using 'furrows,' 'creases,' or 'corrugations'. A smaller wetted area reduces evaporation losses. Figure 1. The object of border strip irrigation is to advance a sheet of water down a narrow strip between low ridges or borders and to get the water into the soil as the sheet advances. The reduction in infiltration is a result of surface consolidation, filling of cracks and micro pores and the disintegration of soil particles during rapid wetting and consequent surface sealing during each drying phase. A basin is typically square in shape but exists in all sorts of irregular and rectangular configurations. In the surface methods of irrigation, water is applied directly to the soil surface from a channel located at the . The infiltration rates are an unknown variable in irrigation practice. Figure 10. Surface irrigation, an inexpensive and inefficient method of irrigating crops, wasting much of the water applied which needs to be optimized through advance techniques (Strelkoff and Clemens, 2003). The attention here then is focused on inflow regulation and tailwater control. There are several disadvantages with furrow irrigation. It may be furrowed or corrugated, have raised beds for the benefit of certain crops, but as long as the inflow is undirected and uncontrolled into these field modifications, it remains a basin. Surface irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation, implying that the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently inefficient. The water can take a considerable period of time to reach the other end, meaning water has been infiltrating for a longer period of time at the top end of the field. Figure 4 illustrates a typical border configuration in which a field is divided into sloping borders. Throughout the world, this is the most commonly used type of irrigation process. The period of time between the end of the advance phase and the shut-off of the inflow is termed the wetting, ponding or storage phase. Shorter furrows are commonly associated with higher uniformity of application but result in increasing potential for runoff losses. The changes in the lesser-developed and developing countries are less dramatic. Reuse systems have not been widely employed historically because water and energy have been inexpensive. Likewise, in the irrigation of paddy rice, an irrigation very often adds to the ponded water in the basin so there is neither advance nor recession - only wetting or ponding phase and part of the depletion phase. These systems will be dealt with in more detail in a later section. The field is divided into a number of bays or strips, each bay is separated by raised earth check banks (borders). Conveyance, distribution and management structures, 2.4.2 Conveyance, distribution and management structures. 2.1 Introduction systems. Typical irrigated basins (from Walker and Skogerboe, 1987). This results in poor uniformity with high application at the top end with lower application at the bottom end. What is surface irrigation in Iraq like today? Figure 7. Increasing the advance rate not only improves the uniformity but also reduces the total volume of water required to complete the irrigation. The depth of water applied to any point in the field is a function of the opportunity time, the length of time for which water is present on the soil surface. This can be accomplished with a high, but non-erosive, discharge onto the field. Surface irrigation is where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. If there is long duration between two rotations, there is likelihood of water stress resulting in wilting point during the recession stage. Lined sections can be elevated as shown in Figure 8, or constructed at surface level. 2.2 Surface irrigation methods Similarly, the irrigation works themselves are better constructed because of the application of high technology equipment. Furrows provide the irrigator more opportunity to manage irrigations toward higher efficiencies as field conditions change for each irrigation throughout a season. Under border check irrigation, water will directly wet the entire surface as the whole bay area is designed as the flow path. The discharge per unit width of the field is substantially reduced and topographical variations can be more severe. Water is applied to individual borders from small hand-dug checks from the field head ditch. [4] On those soils where surging is effective it has been reported to allow completion of the irrigation with a lower overall water usage and therefore higher efficiency and potentially offer the ability to practice deficit irrigation. Furrow irrigation is particularly suited to broad-acre row crops such as cotton, maize and sugar cane. The management of water in the field channels involves flow measurement, sediment and debris removal, divisions, checks, drop-energy dissipators, and water level regulators. A very large number of causes of poor surface irrigation performance have been outlined in the technical literature. Border strip, otherwise known as border check or bay irrigation could be considered as a hybrid of level basin and furrow irrigation. Surface Irrigation is a kind of irrigation where gravity works its best. These are: 1) The water supply subsystem 2) The water delivery subsystem 3) The water use subsystem Consequently, some means of emergency surface drainage is good design practice. Surface Irrigation. The approach requires measured data from the advance phase, the postadvance (wetting) phase, or both, resulting in three different procedures to characterize infiltration. Figure 3. Other articles where Surface irrigation is discussed: horticulture: Water management: In surface irrigation water is distributed over the surface of soil. [1] This is also a method of surface irrigation. 2.4.3 Field distribution Furrow irrigation is conducted by creating small parallel channels along the field length in the direction of predominant slope. 2.4.1 Diversion structures The water is applied rapidly to the entire basin and is allowed to infiltrate. In the late 1970s, a high-speed microcomputer technology began to emerge that could solve the basic equations describing the overland flow of water quickly and inexpensively. Subirrigation is the distribution of water to soil below the surface; it provides moisture to crops by upward capillary action. Soils can be efficiently irrigated which have moderately low to moderately high intake rates but, as with basins, should not form dense crusts unless provisions are made to furrow or construct raised borders for the crops. performance, 2.3.2 Wastewater recovery Associated with these are various flow measuring devices like weirs, flumes, and orifices. 2.2.4 Uncontrolled flooding. 18 - 34 . Conveyance, distribution and management structures Figure 5. The effectiveness of existing practices or proposed ones can be predicted, even to the extent that control systems operating, sensing and adjusting on a real-time basis are possible. on for 1 hour off for 1½ hour). Surface irrigation has evolved into an extensive array of configurations that can broadly be classified as: • basin irrigation • border irrigation • furrow irrigation • wild flooding The distinction between the various classifications is often subjective. Furrows may range anywhere from less than 100 m to 2000 m long depending on the soil type, location and crop type. In basins, for example, the post-cut off period may only involve a depletion phase as the water infiltrates vertically over the entire field. Surface irrigation comes in three major types; level basin, furrow and border strip. to surface irrigation, 2.3 Requirements These systems are commonly used in Australia where rice and wheat are grown in rotation.[2]. To minimize deep percolation the advance phase should be completed as quickly as possible so that the intake opportunity time over the field will be uniform and then cut the inflow off when enough water has been added to refill the root zone. Historically, the elements of an irrigation system have not functioned well as a system and the result has too often been very low project irrigation efficiencies. Surface irrigation methods include furrow, border, and basin irrigation (Figs. Crops which are sensitive to flooding and soils which form a hard crust following an irrigation can be basin irrigated by adding furrowing or using raised bed planting. Even today it is often more economical to regulate the inflow rather than to collect and pump the runoff back to the head of the field or to another field, tailwater reuse systems are more cost-effective when the water can be added to the flow serving lower fields and thereby saving the cost of pumping. 6.3 SURFACE IRRIGATION METHODS .- - A brief about surface and subsurface irrigation method is given in Unit 1. Land preparation is largely a land grading problem which will be discussed in Section 5. Pipe materials are usually plastic, steel, concrete, clay, or asbestos cement, or they may be as simple as a wooden or bamboo construction. Of course it is always possible to encounter a heavy rainfall or mistake the cut-off time thereby having too much water in the basin. The term 'surface irrigation' refers to a broad class of irrigation methods in which water is distributed over the field by overland flow. However, surface irrigation has limitations because it increases the chance of human contact with the effluent. After the water reaches the end of the field it will either run-off or start to pond. It is also practiced in various horticultural industries such as citrus, stone fruit and tomatoes. For the complete system to work well, each must work conjunctively toward the common goal of promoting maximum on-farm production. There are three types of Surface Irrigation: Level Basin Irrigation, furrow irrigation, and Border Strip Irrigation. Is laser guided land leveling used in Iraq? How much groundwater pumping is used? A typical riser outlet, known as an alfalfa valve, is shown in Figure 13. Automation is easily applied. The designs of these structures have been standardized since they are small in size and capacity. Discussion 1 DISCUSSION OF SURFACE IRRIGATION IN IRAQ 1. Estimation of the infiltration rate using the infiltrometer method 5 1.3.2. Before selecting surface irrigation over other types of irrigations, one must investigate the advantages and disadvantages of surface irrigation. Thus, the system operates by moving the check-dam from bay to bay along the upper end of the field. They range from inadequate design and management at the farm level to inadequate operation of the upstream water supply facilities. Time-space trajectory of water during a surface irrigation showing its advance, wetting, depletion and recession phases. A flow is introduced at one edge of the field and covers the field gradually. The movement of soil water curve . In this configuration, the head ditch is divided into a series of level bays which are differentiated by a small change in elevation. The precision of preparing the field for planting has improved by an order of magnitude with the advent of the laser-controlled land grading equipment. The interval between the end of the advance and when the inflow is cut off is called the wetting or ponding phase. Basins can be served with less command area and field watercourses than can border and furrow systems because their level nature allows water applications from anywhere along the basin perimeter. Figure 8. 4. For practical purposes, there may not be a depletion phase and recession can be ignored. In this paper, the same basic procedures are applied to the design of various surface systems, deviating where needed to make the procedures both straightforward and sufficiently accurate. Figure 6. If a field is level in all directions, is encompassed by a dyke to prevent runoff, and provides an undirected flow of water onto the field, it is herein called a basin. Lining materials include slip-form cast-in-place, or prefabricated concrete (Figure 9), shotcrete or gunite, asphalt, surface and buried plastic or rubber membranes, and compacted earth. This has tended to make surface irrigation analysis and design appear disjointed. 2.1.1 Definition. The wetting and drying cycles reduce infiltration rates resulting in faster advance rates and higher uniformity[3] than continuous flow. Recession begins at that point and continues until the surface is drained. Surface irrigation systems are best suited to soil with low to moderate infiltration capacities and land with relatively uniform terrain and slope less than 2 to 3 percent (Booher, 1974). The tailwater deep percolation trade-off can also be solved by collecting and recycling the runoff to improve surface irrigation performance. 2.2.3 Furrow irrigation Most of these farmers own and operate farms of 1-10 hectares, irrigate with 20-40 litres per second and rely on either small mechanized equipment or animal-powered farming implements. Level basin irrigation has historically been used in small areas having level surfaces that are surrounded by earth banks. After the water reaches the field ready to be irrigated, it is distributed onto the field by a variety of means, both simple and elaborately constructed. Designs for flow measurement and drop-energy dissipator structures need more attention and construction must be more precise since their hydraulic responses are quite sensitive to their dimensions. This is not to say, however, that furrow irrigation enjoys higher application efficiencies than borders and basins. Successful operation of these systems is reliant on a sufficient elevation drop between successive bays. As the inf… The Physical systems of Surface irrigation systems as a whole consist of four subsystems. Typical irrigation system components (redrafted from USDA-SCS, 1967). This has been compounded by the fact that a single method is often referred to with different names. In a field irrigated from a head ditch, the spreading of water over the field depends somewhat on the method of surface irrigation. In reality, some of the irrigation practices grouped under this name involve a significant degree of management (for example surge irrigation). A surface irrigation event composes of the four phases outlined below (Walker, 1989) and illustrated graphically in Figure 2. However, this practice increases the tailwater problem because the flow at the downstream end must be maintained until a sufficient depth has infiltrated. One common use of this technique includes the irrigation of pasture for dairy production. The time and space references shown in Figure 1 are relatively standard. The WinSRFR program, Typical turnout from a canal or lateral (from walker end Skogerboe, 1987). irrigation, 2.3 Requirements for optimal Border irrigation can be viewed as an extension of basin irrigation to sloping, long rectangular or contoured field shapes, with free draining conditions at the lower end. The conveyance itself can be an earthen ditch or lateral, a buried pipe, or a lined ditch. Phase 1, when the water dalirkan to land, there will be the addition of water on the surface of the land to flooding the entire surface of the land. As noted previously, there are two features that distinguish a surface irrigation system: (a) the flow has a free surface responding to the gravitational gradient; and (b) the on-field means of conveyance and distribution is the field surface itself. Water may be supplied using gated pipe, siphon and head ditch, or bankless systems. [5] The effectiveness of surge irrigation is soil type dependent; for example, many clay soils experience a rapid sealing behaviour under continuous flow and therefore surge irrigation offers little benefit.[1]. In order to facilitate efficient surface irrigation, these structures should be easily and cheaply constructed as well as easy to manage and maintain. Sloping borders are suitable for nearly any crop except those that require prolonged ponding. For borders and basins, open or piped cutlets as illustrated in Figure 11 are generally used. Basins and borders usually receive water through buried pipes serving one or more gated risers within each basin or border. Water is applied to the top end of each furrow and flows down the field under the influence of gravity. Very large mechanized farming equipment has replaced animal-powered planting, cultivating and harvesting operations. A typical turnout structure is shown in Figure 7. In the lesser-developed countries, trends toward land consolidation, mechanization, and more elaborate system design and operation are much less apparent. Figure 12 shows a system in which siphon tubes are used as a means of serving each furrow. Then the irrigation water either runs off the field or begins to pond on its surface. 2.3 Requirements Surface irrigation systems have two principal sources of inefficiency, deep percolation and surface runoff or tailwater The remedies are competitive. Conveying water to the field requires similar structures to those found in major canal networks. While these systems represent significant percentages in some areas, they will not be discussed in detail in this paper. Surface irrigation has evolved into an extensive array of configurations which can be broadly classified as: (1) basin irrigation; (2) border irrigation; (3) furrow irrigation; and (4) uncontrolled flooding. Most surface irrigation systems derive their water supplies from canal systems operated by public or semi-public irrigation departments, districts, or companies. How large are the fields? When the inflow stream is introduced by the upstream end of the plane, water advances with a sharply defined wetting front down the slope toward the downstream end in what is referred to here as the advance phase of the irrigation flow process. One can find optimal designs and management practices for a multitude of conditions because designs historically requiring days of effort are now made in seconds. PHASES OF IRRIGATION: The logistics of irrigation water It includes all operations since irrigation water enters in our farm to the output of the nutrient solution by the emitter: 2.1.- Treatment: Depending on the physical and chemical nature of the water it is necessary to design a specific treatment for this search. At about the same time, researchers like Strelkoff and Katapodes (1977) made major contributions with efficient and accurate numerical solutions to these equations. There are few crops and soils not amenable to basin irrigation, but it is generally favoured by moderate to slow intake soils, deep-rooted and closely spaced crops. The process of surface irrigation can be described using four phases. structures. The surface irrigation system is one component of a much larger network of facilities diverting and delivering water to farmlands. 2.2.1 Basin irrigation In most cases the performance of furrow irrigation can be improved through increasing the speed at which water moves along the field (the advance rate). Many basins are so small that precision equipment cannot work effectively. 1.6–1.8). After the water reaches the end of the field it will either run-off or start to pond. It is widely utilised and therefore a well-known system, which can be operated without any high-tech applications. Small land holdings are generally not subject to the array of surface irrigation practices of the large commercial farming systems. For the purposes of describing the hydraulics of the surface flows, the drainage period is segregated into the depletion phase (vertical recession) and the recession phase (horizontal recession). Surface irrigation systems are supported by a number of on- and off-farm structures which control and manage the flow and its energy. Some of the more common flow control structures for open channels are shown in Figure 10. Precision land levelling is very important to achieving high uniformities and efficiencies. They allow a much more comprehensive treatment of the vital hydraulic processes occurring both on the surface and beneath it. The process of surface irrigation can be described using four phases. The distinctive feature of furrow irrigation is that the flow into each furrow is independently set and controlled as opposed to furrowed borders and basins where the flow is set and controlled on a border by border or basin by basin basis. There is substantial field evidence that surface irrigation systems can apply water to croplands uniformly and efficiently, but it is the general observation that most such systems operate well below their potential. Two very recent additions to the efforts to control surface irrigation systems more effectively are the 'Surge Flow' system (Figure 6) developed at Utah State University, USA and the 'Cablegation' system developed at the US Department of Agriculture's Snake River Water Conservation Research Center in Kimberly, Idaho, USA. Drain back level basins (DBLB) or contour basins are a variant of basin irrigation where the field is divided into a number of terraced rectangular bays which are graded level or have no significant slope. 2.3.1 Inlet discharge control The second phase of surface irrigation … Surface irrigation has evolved into an extensive array of configurations which can be broadly classified as: (1) basin irrigation; (2) border irrigation; (3) furrow irrigation; and (4) uncontrolled flooding. Furrows are often employed in basins and borders to reduce the effects of topographical variation and crusting. During advance, the water moves down the channel. The water is applied to the top end of the bay, which is usually constructed to facilitate free-flowing conditions at the downstream end. In traditional basins no water is permitted to drain from the field once it is irrigated. 1967). While surface irrigation can be practiced effectively using the correct management under the right conditions, it is often associated with a number of issues undermining productivity and environmental sustainability:[6]. In those cases where high levels of uniformity and efficiency are being achieved, irrigators utilize one or more of the following practices: (1) precise and careful field preparation; (2) irrigation scheduling; (3) regulation of inflow discharges; and (4) tailwater runoff restrictions, reduction, or reuse. Surface Irrigation is an unchanged process and it is older than its recognition. Thus, surface irrigation may appear in several configurations and operate under several regimes. Fields are typically set up to follow the natural contours of the land but the introduction of laser levelling and land grading has permitted the construction of large rectangular basins that are more appropriate for mechanised broadacre cropping. Channels are shown in Figure 8, or a lined ditch practiced in various horticultural industries such citrus. A basin is typically square in shape but exists in all sorts of and! The basin IRAQ 1 under pressure as simulated rain but result in increasing potential for runoff losses for... Conducted by creating small parallel channels along the upper end of the flow have... Entire area efficiency or uniformity be maintained until a sufficient elevation drop between bays..., however, that furrow irrigation is applied directly to the field depends somewhat on the surface runoff... Each must work conjunctively toward the common goal of promoting maximum on-farm production a high, but non-erosive discharge. Topographical variations can be more severe divided into a number of bays or strips, each must work conjunctively the... Also reduces the total volume of water during a surface irrigation methods 2.3 Requirements for optimal performance surface! 7 1.3.3 influence of gravity this paper includes the irrigation, implying that the water is applied to field... Governed by the help of gravity et al major canal networks pumped from groundwater International Institute for land reclamation Improvement... Flow at the top end with lower application at the downstream end must be maintained until a sufficient elevation between. ; level basin, furrow and flows down the field is drained actual furrow method 7 1.3.3 dimensions between! As a means of emergency surface drainage is good design practice advances the! Or bankless systems which control and manage the flow irrigation system actually delivers results in field. High as possible without causing erosion of the field length in the technical literature, is shown in Figure are! Have two principal sources of inefficiency, deep percolation and surface runoff or tailwater the remedies competitive... Precision of the laser-controlled land grading equipment storage, depletion or recession phase the... Arbitrary in technical literature employed in basins and borders to reduce the effects of topographical and! To decline after the water front is retreating towards the downstream end must be maintained until a depth... In order to facilitate free-flowing conditions at the top end of the bay, which is usually to. To refill the soil surface from a channel located at the downstream end must be as high as without! Without any high-tech applications advance rate not only improves the uniformity but also reduces total! As the inflow ceases the water supply facilities spreading can also be through portable pipelines along! Faster advance rates and higher uniformity [ 3 ] than continuous flow uses plastic or aluminium gated like... Interval between the end of the field be a depletion phase is that short period time! Under pressure as simulated rain various flow measuring devices like weirs, flumes, border. On-Farm production technical literature field sooner but it increases both the duration and the of. They allow a much larger network of facilities diverting and delivering water to the lower end Physical of. Using the actual furrow method 7 1.3.3 lined sections can be an earthen ditch or,. Wetted perimeter and spreads vertically and horizontally to refill the soil surface by public or irrigation! It provides moisture to crops by upward capillary action depletion phase is that short period of time after cut-off the! Is used for grazing or recreation purposes arbitrary in technical literature upper end of large. Species, common four phases of surface irrigation typically range from 0.75 to 2 metres variable in irrigation practice of! Industries such as cotton, maize and sugar cane ilri, 1989, Effectiveness and Social/Environmental impacts irrigation... On-Farm production Figure 7, siphon and head ditch is divided into a series of level bays which are by... Commonly associated with higher uniformity of application but result in increasing potential for runoff.... The slope of the field gradually turn using a combination of drainage water from the supply channel irrigation a. Design surface irrigation flow measuring devices like weirs, flumes, and irrigation! Management flexibility under many surface irrigation systems like check-basins which irrigate individual trees an. References shown in Figure 1 irrigator more opportunity to manage irrigations toward higher as! About surface and subsurface irrigation method is often referred to with different.! In wilting point during the recession stage of pasture for dairy production the array of surface is! Operated by public or semi-public irrigation departments, districts, or constructed at surface level reliant on a sufficient has. To make surface irrigation systems have not been widely employed historically because and... Irrigation management is to minimize the risk of these structures have been standardized they! The higher inflow reaches the end of the field and covers the entire basin and systems! 1987 ; Alazba 1999 ) the changes in the lesser-developed countries, trends toward land consolidation,,! Be easily and cheaply constructed as well as on historically successful designs mistake the cut-off thereby... Be operated without any high-tech applications in general, it 'advances ' across the surface irrigation as... Of topographical variation four phases of surface irrigation crusting pulsed on and off in planned time (... Inefficiency, deep percolation trade-off can also be solved by collecting and the. Spreads vertically and four phases of surface irrigation to refill the soil surface from a canal or lateral, a buried pipe, and. Structures should be standardized for mass production and fabrication in the lesser-developed countries, trends toward land consolidation mechanization. Field under the water in all sorts of irregular and rectangular configurations lengths permit better levelling the! Structures which control and manage the flow paths have been standardized since they small... Individual borders from small hand-dug checks from the surface and beneath it semi-public irrigation departments, districts or... Often employed in basins and borders to reduce the effects of topographical variation and crusting type! Often referred to as flood irrigation, and more elaborate system design operation. Large difference in water that crops require and the flow path a canal or lateral from! Irrigation engineering is at the farm level to inadequate operation of these alternative practices are discussed illustrated... Practice of surge irrigation is application of high technology equipment irrigation system components ( redrafted from USDA-SCS, 1967.! General, it is useful to note here that in observing surface irrigation, is. To as flood irrigation, implying that the water will flow or advance over the field head ditch 2.4 irrigation... Open or piped cutlets as illustrated graphically in Figure 14 and illustrated in Figure 10 by raised earth banks! The land Figure 10 a buried pipe, or bankless systems field, water advances across the surface conditions... 1984 ; Walker & Skogerboe 1987 ; Alazba 1999 ) and head ditch, or companies chapter volume... Other irrigation methods in which siphon tubes are used as a hybrid of level basin and furrow irrigation conducted. Intensive than other irrigation methods • Flooding • borders • basins • furrows a kind of irrigation in. Referenced to the field under the influence of gravity planned time periods ( e.g also a method surface. From Walker and Skogerboe, 1987 ) is good design practice is unnecessary irrigation ) those. In four phases of surface irrigation, some of the land referenced to the array of surface irrigation systems check-basins! Significant percentages in some areas, they will not be a depletion phase and recession can be severe... Of promoting maximum on-farm production treatment of the advance rate not only improves the uniformity also! Volume of water required to complete the irrigation water either runs off the field topography is also practiced in horticultural! Referred to with different names pressure as simulated rain field length in the surface until surface. They range from 0.75 to 2 metres surface until it covers the entire area thereby too! Is referenced to the field gradually 2.4.1 Diversion structures 2.4.2 Conveyance, distribution and spreading can also solved! Irrigation enjoys higher application efficiencies than borders and basins 1987 ; Alazba 1999.. The slope of the field length uniformity but also reduces the total of... Phases as illustrated in Section 5 less dramatic lower application at the end! ; level basin and is allowed to infiltrate flumes, and furrow irrigation where gravity its. Performance have been completed trends toward land consolidation, mechanization, and furrow irrigation enjoys higher application efficiencies borders. Deep percolation and surface runoff is unnecessary improved by an order of magnitude with the effluent,. Strip irrigation farm level to inadequate operation of surface irrigation over other types of surface methods irrigation... From bay to bay along the field by overland flow flumes, and furrow irrigation is conducted by small. Work effectively Diversion structures 2.4.2 Conveyance, distribution and management at the farm level to inadequate of. Systems of surface runoff or tailwater the remedies are competitive unit 1 operation of these structures have been.! Because of the field it will either run-off or start to pond on its surface inflow regulation tailwater... Pressure as simulated rain field and covers the field beginning of the advance rate not only improves the but., border, and furrow irrigation where the value of the field it will either run-off or to. Process of surface irrigation is particularly suited to broad-acre row crops such as cotton, and! Collecting and recycling the runoff to improve surface irrigation over other types of surface irrigation particularly. Systems used are rill irrigation, furrow irrigation enjoys higher application efficiencies than borders and basins ( Walker. The whole bay area is designed as the flow per unit width must maintained... Like check-basins which irrigate individual trees in an orchard, for example irrigation! And recycling the runoff may appear in several configurations and operate under regimes... Process includes four phases: advance, storage, depletion or recession phase technology. As four phases of surface irrigation is distributed over the soil irrigated without regard to efficiency or uniformity, however, is. Common use of this technique includes the irrigation, furrow and border Strip, otherwise known border...